Manifest Destiny and the Mexican-American War



The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican War and ceded an incredible amount of land to the United States and advantages, although negotiations were conducted dubiously from the aspect of the American government.

"...negotiated by an unauthorized agent, with an unacknowledged government, submitted by an accidental President to a dissatisfied Senate..."
-Former New York City Mayor Philip Hone's sentiment of the Treaty (Herring 205).

*unauthorized agent: Trist acted alone against Polk's recall order
*unacknowledged government: Mexico's temporary government within the chaos
*accidental President: Polk had no intention to submit those terms
*dissatisfied Senate: divided over the after-War issue
: Whigs wanted no cession of land; some Democrats wanted all of Mexico

-Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: brought peace and official end of a bitter war between Mexico and the United States on March 10, 1848 after Congressional ratification

MEXICAN OUTCOME: Mexico ceded California, New Mexico, and Texas above the Rio Grande River for 15 million dollars.
-more than half of prewar Mexican land was lost

AMERICAN OUTCOME: full extension of boundaries of United States to Pacific Ocean and officially completed western expansion of land. Manifest Destiny was achieved in terms of continental westward expansion.
-access to the Pacific and trade with the Asia
-vast resources, including gold in California (California Gold Rush of 1849)
-no more problem with the Mexicans, who were now exclusively south of the US

The USA had no more competition on the North American continent:
-Mexico: in chaos and no longer capable to invade Texan territory or reclaim the land south of Rio Grande because of War
-Canada: stable treaty with the British that would soon resolve the Oregon issue.

Mexican-American treaty designer: Nicholas Trist, though he was acting against President Polk's orders

Nicholas Trist, American treaty diplomat who opposed taking land south of the Rio Grande and disobeyed President Polk
Last page of treaty with signatures

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